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 e need to think harder how we prepare young people for tomorrow’s world. In the past, education was about teaching people something. Now, it’s about making sure that children develop a reliable compass and the navigation skills to nd their own way through an uncertain, volatile and ambiguous world. Now, schools need to prepare students for a world in which most people will need to collaborate with people of diverse cultural origins, and appreciate di erent ideas, perspectives and values; a world in which people need to decide how to trust and collaborate across such di erences; and a world in which their lives will be affected by issues that transcend national boundaries. Schools need to help students to develop autonomy and identity that is cognizant of the reality of national and global pluralism, equipping them to join others in life, work and citizenship.These days, we no longer know exactly how things will unfold, often we are surprised and need to learn from the extraordinary, and sometimes we make mistakes along the way. And it will often be the mistakes and failures, when properly understood, that create the context for learning and growth. A generation ago, teachers could expect that what they taught would last for a lifetime of their students. Today, schools need to prepare students for more rapid economic and social change than ever before, for jobs that have not yet been created, to use technologies that have not yet been invented, and to solve social problems that we don’t yet know will arise. How do we foster motivated, engaged learners who are prepared to conquer the unforeseen challenges of tomorrow, not to speak of those of today? The dilemma for educators is that routine cognitive skills, the skills that are easiest to teach and easiest to test, are also the skills that are easiest to digitize, automate and outsource. There is no question that state-of-the-art knowledge and skills in a discipline will always remain important. Innovative or creative people generally have specialized skills in a eld of knowledge or a practice. And as much as ‘learning to learn’ skills are important, we always learn by learning something. However, educational success is no longer about reproducing content knowledge, but about extrapolating from what we know and applying that knowledge in novel situations. Put simply, the world no longer rewards people for what they know ‒ Google knows everything ‒ but for what they can do with what they know. Because that is the main di erentiator today, education today needs to be much more about ways of thinking, involving creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving and decision-making; about ways of working, including communication and collaboration; about tools for working, including the capacity to recognize and exploit the potential of new technologies; and, last but not least, about the social and emotional skills that help us live and work together. OECD教育局長 兼 OECD事務総長教育政策特別顧問アンドレアス・シュライヒャー92015 MAY Vol.407

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